From the past  to today !!

Alcohol = ethanol = Trinkbranntwein = Fire-water =
               drinking alcohol = Brandy
= Spirit

Alcohol results from fermentation of sugar/water liquid products: Grapes/clusters, Trester, fruit,  molasses, grain, potatoes. By pure breed? Yeasts today converte the sugar is  in  equal parts into carbonic acid, alcohol = ethanol and small quantities of  by-products. This occurs during the fermenting process.

Yeast result in 50-100%  fewer alcohol! Carbonic acid escapes over the fermenting essay and the alcohol  remains in the fermenting liquid.

By-products are: Methanol, acetic acid, ethyl  acetate, high-per cent alcohols also Fuseloele mentioned, acetaldehyde, prussic  acid = only with stone fruit, flavour materials, ester etc..

The alcohol is separated by distillation from the fermenting liquid, mainly water. This is done via heating up the fermenting liquid . The mentioned by-products develop during  the fermentation from glycerin and protein materials, which Fuseloele forms.
Only the by-products lend its typical taste and smell to the alcohol.  Unfortunately the by-products do not only have good test advantages but  also disadvantages, which are harmful. They taste and do not only smell badly,  but are also poisonous.

For this reason with distillation one differentiates and one separates:


Fist run = Head

It smells and tastes miserable, is poisonous and must  be away-poured.


Central run = middel

Usable alcohol, which is suitable for the human  benefit. The spirit is to be adjusted after addition of soft water to drinking strength before benefit.


 Last run = Tail

It contains Fuseloele, which contain flavours and taste materials, but because of  the bad taste not to be used


Alcoholmeter,  alcohol tester

Alcoholmeter measures the alcohol percent  in alcohol/water liquids! If sugar is in the liquid, then the
measurement is false
! For that an alcohol/water/sugar  liquid cannot be measured with an alcoholmeter!

The most well-known alcohol meters are after: Weight %, volume % = vol. % or in former times also after Tralle % mentioned, Proof %, Gay Lussac & Cartier - .
Further information is to be found: click here!

The alcohol meters after Proof display the double to value of volume %!

When I use an alcoholmeter:

1. In  order to measure the result after distillation. Here normally an alcoholmeter is enough to
                   0-100 % approx. 230 mm long.
2. In order to dilute and prepare for  the filtration with activated charcoal the alcohol.
                   Here that should be better  approx. 300 mm long alcoholmeters of 0-100 % volume.
3. In order to adjust the  alcohol to drinking strength. Here a finer alcohol meter of 30-60 %
                   volume  should. approx. 300 mm long with quite far distances between the lines
                   to be   used.

Still better one uses this alcoholmeter with an inserted thermometer and a temperature correction scale.

For more information see measuring